Tuesday, 10 July 2012

Common cold

COMMON COLD known as nasopharyngitis, rhinopharyngitis, acute coryza, or a cold) is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system which affects primarily the nose. Symptoms include a cough, sore throat, runny nose, and fever which usually resolve in seven to ten days, with some symptoms lasting up to three weeks. Well over 200 viruses are implicated in the cause of the common cold; the rhinoviruses are the most common.

Signs and symptoms symptoms of a cold include cough, runny nose, nasal congestion and a sore throat, sometimes accompanied by muscle ache, fatigue, headache, and loss of appetite. In adults, a fever is generally not present but it is common in infants and young children. The cough is usually mild compared to that accompanying influenza. While a cough and a fever indicate a higher likelihood of influenza in adults, a great deal of similarity exists between these two conditions. A number of the viruses that cause the common cold may also result in asymptomatic infections.The color of the sputum or nasal secretion may vary from clear to yellow to green and does not predict the class of agent causing the infection.

The distinction between different viral upper respiratory tract infections is loosely based on the location of symptoms with the common cold affecting primarily the nose, pharyngitis the throat, and bronchitis the lungs. There however can be significant overlap and multiple areas can be affected.

The common cold is frequently defined as nasal inflammation with varying amount of throat inflammation. Self diagnosis is frequent. Isolation of the actual viral agent involved is rarely performed,and it is generally not possible to identify the virus type through symptoms.

Physical measure to prevent the spread of cold viruses has been proved the only effective measure for prevention.
These measures include primarily hand washing and face masks; in the health care environment, gowns and disposable gloves are also used. Efforts such as quarantine are not possible as the disease is so widespread and symptoms are non- specific. Vaccination has proved difficult as there are so many viruses involved and they change rapidly. Creation of a broadly effective vaccine is thus highly improbable. Regular hand washing appears to be effective at reducing the transmission of cold viruses especially among children. Whether the addition of antivirals or antibacterials to normal hand washing provides greater benefit is unknown. Wearing face masks when around people who are infected may be beneficial; there is insufficient evidence for maintaining a greater social distance.Zinc supplementation may be effective at decreasing the rate of colds.

There are currently no medications which have been conclusively demonstrated to shorten the duration of infection. Treatment thus comprises symptomatic relief. Getting plenty of rest, drinking fluids to maintain hydration, and gargling with warm salt water, are reasonable conservative measures. Much of the benefit from treatment is however attributed to the placebo effect.

Treatments that help reduce symptoms are simple analgesics and antipyretics such as ibuprofen and acetaminophen/ paracetamol. Cough medicines are any more effective than simple analgesics and they are not recommended for use in children due to a lack of evidence supporting effectiveness and the potential for harm.

Malaria disease: A distruction to the world especially children and adults.

Malaria a disease caused by a vector mosquito. Female anopheles mosquito in particular. Which transmits plasmodium(The cause of the disease)

. Malaria is the worst disease that is distroying the lives of our children and adults.

Symptoms: Symptoms of malaria are headach, cough, stomach ache, fever,diziness etc
Causes: It is caused by the bite of the female anopheles mosquito.

Which transmits plasmodium to the body of the host.

Prevention: Always keep your environment clean by cleaning gutters and dirty places around your environment

Always sleep under the treated mosquito net to avoid the bite of the mosquito.

Drugs: Use Chloroquine and Chamoquine.

Sunday, 8 July 2012

HEADACHE: You think that when you have headache, it is common now read and cure yourself

Definition of
A Headache is defined
as a pain in the head or
upper neck. It is one of
the most common
locations of pain in the
body and has many
How are
Headaches have
numerous causes, and
in 2007 the
International Headache
Society agreed upon an
updated classification
system for headache.
Because so many
people suffer from
headaches and because
treatment sometimes
is difficult, it is hoped
that the new
classification system
will allow health care
practitioners come to a
specific diagnosis as to
the type of headache
and to provide better
and more effective
There are three major
categories of
1. primary headaches,
2. secondary headaches,
3. cranial neuralgias, facial
pain, and other
What are
Primary headaches
include migraine,
tension, and cluster
headaches, as well as a
variety of other less
common types of
Tension headaches
are the most common
type of primary
headache. Up to 90% of
adults have had or will
have tension
headaches. Tension
headaches occur more
commonly among
women than men.
Migraine headaches
are the second most
common type of
primary headache. An
estimated 28 million
people in the United
States (about 12% of
the population) will
experience a migraine
headache. Migraine
headaches affect
children as well as
adults. Before puberty,
boys and girls are
affected equally by
migraine headaches, but
after puberty, more
women than men are
affected. It is
estimated that 6% of
men and up to 18% of
women will experience
a migraine headache in
their lifetime.
Cluster headaches
are a rare type of
primary headache
affecting 0.1% of the
population (1 in a 1,000
people). It more
commonly affects men
in their late 20s though
women and children can
also suffer these types
of headache.
Primary headaches can
affect the quality of
life. Some people have
occasional headaches
that resolve quickly
while others are
debilitated. While these
headaches are not life-
threatening, they may
be associated with
symptoms that can
mimic strokes or
intracerebral bleeding.
What are
Secondary headaches
are those that are due
to an underlying
structural problem in
the head or neck. There
are numerous causes of
this type of headache
ranging from bleeding in
the brain, tumor, or
meningitis and
encephalitis .
What causes
While tension
headaches are the
most frequently
occurring type of
headache, their cause is
not known. The most
likely cause is
contraction of the
muscles that cover the
skull. When the muscles
covering the skull are
stressed, they may
spasm and cause pain.
Common sites include
the base of the skull
where the trapezius
muscles of the neck
inserts, the temple
where muscles that
move the jaw are
located, and the
There is little research
to confirm the exact
cause of tension
headaches. Tension
headaches occur
because of physical or
emotional stress placed
on the body. These
stressors can cause the
muscles surrounding
the skull to clench the
teeth and go into
spasm. Physical
stressors include
difficult and prolonged
manual labor, or sitting
at a desk or computer
for long periods of time
concentrating. Emotional
stress may also cause
tension headaches by
causing the muscles
surrounding the skull to
What are the
symptoms of
The pain symptoms of
a tension headache are:
The pain begins in the
back of the head and
upper neck and is
described as a band-like
tightness or pressure.
Often is described as
pressure encircling the
head with the most
intense pressure over
the eyebrows.
The pain usually is mild
(not disabling) and
bilateral (affecting both
sides of the head).
The pain is not
associated with an aura
(see below), nausea,
vomiting, or sensitivity
to light and sound.
The pain occurs
(infrequently and
without a pattern) but
can occur frequently
and even daily in some
The pain allows most
people to function
normally, despite the
headache. How are tension
Tension headaches are
painful, and patients
may be upset that the
diagnosis is "only" a
tension headache. Even
though it is not life-
threatening, a tension
headache can affect
the activities of daily
Most people
successfully treat
themselves with over-
the–counter (OTC) pain
medications to control
tension headaches. The
following work well for
most people:
ibuprofen (Motrin,
(Tylenol) and
naproxen (Aleve)
If these fail, other
supportive treatments
are available. Recurrent
headaches should be a
signal to seek medical
help. Massage,
biofeedback, and stress
management can all be
used as adjuncts to
help with control of
tension headaches.
It is important to
remember that OTC
medications, while safe,
are medications and
may have side effects
and potential
interactions with
medications. It always
is wise to ask your
health care practitioner
or pharmacist if you
have questions about
OTC medications and
their use. This is
especially important
with OTC pain
medications, because
patients use them so
It is important to read
the listing of ingredients
in OTC pain medications.
Often an OTC
medication is a
combination of
ingredients, and the
second or third
ingredient may have the
potential for drug
interaction or
contraindication with
medications a patient is
currently taking. For
Some OTC medications
include caffeine, which
may trigger rapid
heartbeats in some
In night time
(Benadryl) may be
added. This may cause
drowsiness, and driving
or using heavy
machinery may not be
appropriate when
taking the medication.
Other examples where
caution should be used
include the following:
Aspirin should not be
used in children and
teenagers because of
the risk of Reye's
Syndrome, a disease
where coma, brain
damage, and death can
occur if there is a viral
like illness when the and
aspirin is used.
Aspirin and ibuprofen
are irritating to the
stomach and may
cause bleeding. They
should be used with
caution in patients who
have peptic ulcer
disease or who take
blood thinners like
warfarin (Coumadin)
and clopidogrel bisulfate
Acetaminophen, if used
in large amounts, can
cause liver damage or
failure. It should be
used with caution in
patients who drink
significant amounts of
alcohol or who have liver
One cause of chronic
tension headaches is
overuse of medications
for pain. When pain
medications are used
for a prolonged period
of time, headaches can
recur as the effects of
the medication wear
off. Thus, the headache
becomes a symptom of
the withdrawal of
medication (rebound


cancer known
medically as a
malignant neoplasm,
is a broad group of
various diseases, all
involving unregulated
cell growth. In
cancer, cells divide
and grow
forming malignant
tumors, and invade
nearby parts of the
body. The cancer
may also spread to
more distant parts
of the body through
the lymphatic
system or
bloodstream. Not all
tumors are
cancerous. Benign
tumors do not grow
uncontrollably, do
not invade
neighboring tissues,
and do not spread
throughout the
body. There are over
200 different known
cancers that afflict
Determining what
causes cancer is
complex. Many
things are known to
increase the risk of
cancer, including
tobacco use, certain
infections, radiation,
lack of physical
activity, obesity, and
pollutants. These
can directly damage
genes or combine
with existing genetic
faults within cells to
cause the disease.
five to ten percent
of cancers are
entirely hereditary.
Cancer can be
detected in a
number of ways,
including the
presence of certain
signs and
screening tests, or
medical imaging.
Once a possible
cancer is detected it
is diagnosed by
examination of a
tissue sample.
Cancer is usually
treated with
radiation therapy
and surgery. The
chances of surviving
the disease vary
greatly by the type
and location of the
cancer and the
extent of disease at
the start of
treatment. While
cancer can affect
people of all ages,
and a few types of
cancer are more
common in children,
the risk of
developing cancer
generally increases
with age. In 2007,
cancer caused about
13% of all human
deaths worldwide
(7.9 million). Rates
are rising as more
people live to an old
age and as mass
lifestyle changes
occur in the
developing world.
Signs and
signs and
Symptoms of
depend on the
location of the
When cancer begins
it invariably produces
no symptoms with
signs and
symptoms only
appearing as the
mass continues to
grow or ulcerates.
The findings that
result depends on
the type and
location of the
cancer. Few
symptoms are
specific, with many
of them also
frequently occurring
in individuals who
have other
conditions. Cancer is
the new " great
imitator". Thus it is
not uncommon for
people diagnosed
with cancer to have
been treated for
other diseases to
which it was
assumed their
symptoms were
Local effects
Local symptoms
may occur due to
the mass of the
tumor or its
ulceration. For
example mass
effects from lung
cancer can cause
blockage of the
bronchus resulting in
cough or pneumonia,
esophageal cancer
can cause narrowing
of the esophagus
making it difficult or
painful to swallow,
and colorectal cancer
may lead to
narrowing or
blockages in the
bowel resulting in
changes in bowel
habits. Masses of
breast or testicles
may be easily felt.
Ulceration can cause
bleeding which, if it
occurs in the lung,
will lead to coughing
up blood, in the
bowels to anemia or
rectal bleeding, in
the bladder to blood
in the urine, and in
the uterus to vaginal
bleeding. Although
localized pain may
occurs in advanced
cancer, the initial
swelling is usually
painless. Some
cancers can cause
build up of fluid
within the chest or
General symptoms
occur due to distant
effects of the
cancer that are not
related to direct or
metastatic spread.
These may include:
unintentional weight
loss, fever, being
excessively tired,
and changes to the
disease, leukemias,
and cancers of the
liver or kidney can
cause a persistent
fever of unknown
constellations of
symptoms, termed
phenomena , may
occur with some
cancers. Examples
include the
appearance of
myasthenia gravis in
thymoma and
clubbing in lung
Cancer prevention is
defined as active
measures to
decrease the risk of
cancer. The
majority of cancer
risk factors are due
to environmental
(including lifestyle)
factors, and many
of these factors are
controllable. Thus,
cancer is largely
considered a
preventable disease.
Greater than
30% of cancer is
preventable by
avoiding risk factors
including: tobacco,
overweight /
obesity, an
insufficient diet,
physical inactivity,
alcohol, sexually
infections , and air
pollution. Not all
causes can be
completely such as
naturally occurring

The great worm that distroys man(hook worm)

Hookworm, Ascaris, and
whipworm are known as
helminths (parasitic
worms). Together, they
account for a major burden
of disease worldwide.
Hookworms live in the small
intestine. Hookworm eggs are
passed in the feces of an
infected person. If the
infected person defecates
outside (near bushes, in a
garden, or field) of if the
feces of an infected person
are used as fertilizer, eggs
are deposited on soil. They
can then mature and hatch,
releasing larvae (immature
worms). The larvae mature
into a form that can
penetrate the skin of
humans. Hookworm infection
is mainly acquired by walking
barefoot on contaminated
soil. One kind of hookworm
can also be transmitted
through the ingestion of
Most people infected with
hookworms have no
symptoms. Some have
gastrointestinal symptoms,
especially persons who are
infected for the first time.
The most serious effects of
hookworm infection are blood
loss leading to anemia, in
addition to protein loss.
Hookworm infections are
treatable with medication
prescribed by your health
care provider.

Typhoid fever: the great distruction to human

How do patients
get typhoid
Typhoid fever is
contracted by the
ingestion of the
bacteria in
contaminated food or
water. Patients with
acute illness can
contaminate the
surrounding water
supply through stool,
which contains a high
concentration of the
bacteria. Contamination
of the water supply
can, in turn, taint the
food supply. About
3%-5% of patients
become carriers of the
bacteria after the acute
illness. Some patients
suffer a very mild
illness that goes
unrecognized. These
patients can become
long-term carriers of
the bacteria. The
bacteria multiplies in the
gallbladder, bile ducts, or
liver and passes into
the bowel. The bacteria
can survive for weeks
in water or dried
sewage. These chronic
carriers may have no
symptoms and can be
the source of new
outbreaks of typhoid
fever for many years.
How does the
bacteria cause
disease, and
how is it
After the ingestion of
contaminated food or
water, the Salmonella
bacteria invade the
small intestine and
enter the bloodstream
temporarily. The
bacteria are carried by
white blood cells in the
liver, spleen, and bone
marrow. The bacteria
then multiply in the cells
of these organs and
reenter the
bloodstream. Patients
develop symptoms,
including fever, when
the organism reenters
the bloodstream.
Bacteria invade the
gallbladder, biliary
system, and the
lymphatic tissue of the
bowel. Here, they
multiply in high
numbers. The bacteria
pass into the intestinal
tract and can be
identified for diagnosis
in cultures from the
stool tested in the
laboratory. Stool
cultures are sensitive in
the early and late
stages of the disease
but often must be
supplemented with
blood cultures to make
the definite diagnosis.
What are the
symptoms of
typhoid fever?
The incubation period is
usually one to two
weeks, and the
duration of the illness is
about four to six
weeks. The patient
poor appetite;
abdominal pain;
generalized aches and
fever, often up to 104
lethargy (usually only if
intestinal bleeding or
perforation (after two
to three weeks of the
diarrhea or constipation.
People with typhoid
fever usually have a
sustained fever as high
as 103 F-104 F (39 C-40
Chest congestion
develops in many
patients, and abdominal
pain and discomfort are
common. The fever
becomes constant.
Improvement occurs in
the third and fourth
week in those without
complications. About
10% of patients have
recurrent symptoms
(relapse) after feeling
better for one to two
weeks. Relapses are
actually more common
in individuals treated
with antibiotics.

What is the
treatment for
typhoid fever,
and what is the
Typhoid fever is
treated with antibiotics
that kill the Salmonella
bacteria. Prior to the
use of antibiotics, the
fatality rate was 20%.
Death occurred from
overwhelming infection,
pneumonia, intestinal
bleeding, or intestinal
perforation. With
antibiotics and
supportive care,
mortality has been
reduced to 1%-2%. With
appropriate antibiotic
therapy, there is usually
improvement within
one to two days and
recovery within seven
to 10 days.
Several antibiotics are
effective for the
treatment of typhoid
fever. Chloramphenicol
was the original drug of
choice for many years.
Because of rare serious
side effects,
chloramphenicol has
been replaced by other
effective antibiotics.
The choice of antibiotics
needs to be guided by
identifying the
geographic region where
the organism was
acquired and the results
of cultures once
available. (Certain
strains from South
America show a
significant resistance to
some antibiotics.)
Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) is
the most frequently
used drug in the U.S. for
nonpregnant patients.
Ceftriaxone (Rocephin),
an intramuscular
injection medication, is
an alternative for
pregnant patients.
Ampicillin (Omnipen,
Polycillin, Principen) and
(Bactrim, Septra) are
frequently prescribed
antibiotics although
resistance has been
reported in recent
years. If relapses occur,
patients are retreated
with antibiotics.
The carrier state, which
occurs in 3%-5% of
those infected, can be
treated with prolonged
antibiotics. Often,
removal of the
gallbladder, the site of
chronic infection, will
cure the carrier state.

Can typhoid
fever be
For those traveling to
high-risk areas, vaccines
are now available. The
vaccine is usually not
recommended in the
U.S. There are two
forms of the vaccine
available an oral and an
injectable form. The
vaccination needs to be
completed at least one
week prior to travel
and, depending on the
type of vaccine, only
protects from two to
five years. The oral
vaccine is
contraindicated in
patients with
depressed immune
systems. Details of the
vaccination and the
vaccine you chose
should be discussed
with your health-care

Acquired immune deficiency syndrom. The great attack to youths

HIV is a virus most
commonly caught by
having unprotected
sex or by sharing
infected needles to
inject drugs.
HIV stands for human
immunodeficiency virus.
The virus
weakens your ability to
fight infections and
disease, such as cancer.
AIDS is the final stage
of HIV infection, when
your body can no longer
fight life-threatening
infections. There is no
cure for HIV, but there
are treatments to
enable most people
with the virus to live a
long and healthy life.
How is HIV spread?
HIV is found in the body
fluids of an infected
person, which includes
semen and vaginal
fluids, blood, inside the
anus and breast
milk. However, it is not
spread easily compared
to other viruses, like
colds or flu.
The most
common ways of getting
HIV in the UK are:
having unprotected sex,
including vaginal, oral
and anal sex
using a
contaminated needle or
syringe to inject drugs
from mother to baby,
before or during birth, or
by breastfeeding
The virus enters the
bloodstream, often
through cuts and sores,
and attacks the
immune system, which
protects the body
against infection.
Read more about what
causes HIV.
Getting tested
If you think you might
be at risk of HIV, you
should have a test
immediately. The earlier
HIV is detected, the
more likely it is that
treatment will be
Emergency anti-HIV
medication called PEP
may stop you becoming
infected, but treatment
must be started within
three days of coming
into contact with the
Many people newly
infected with HIV have
no signs or symptoms
at all. The only way to
find out if you have HIV
is to have a blood test.
It can take several
weeks after infection
before the virus is
picked up in testing, so
after your initial test
you will be advised to
have another one a few
weeks later.
There are a number of
places you can get an
HIV test, including your
GP surgery, sexual
health clinics
and Fastest clinics (run
by the Terrence Higgins
You may get the results
in hours, days or
weeks, depending on
where you were tested.
Find your nearest sexual
health clinic.
If your test is positive
you will be referred to a
specialist HIV clinic
where you'll have more
blood tests to show
what effect HIV is
having on your immune
system and be able to
discuss treatment
options. Find out more
about coping with a
positive HIV test.
Living with HIV
Although there is no
cure for HIV,
treatments are much
more successful than
they used to be,
enabling people with
HIV to lead as normal a
life as possible.
Medication, known as
antiretrovirals, works
by slowing down the
damage the virus does
to the immune
system. You will need
to take a number of
tablets every day.
You will be encouraged
to take regular exercise,
eat a healthy diet, stop
smoking and have
yearly flu jabs and five-
yearly pneumococcal
vaccinations to
minimise the risk of
getting serious
Someone with HIV is
said to have AIDS when
tests show their
immune system has
stopped working and
they develop life-
threatening illnesses
such as cancer.
Read more about living
with HIV.
Preventing HIV
The best way
to prevent HIV is to
practise safe sex and
use a condom, or if you
inject drugs, do not
share needles.
HIV can affect anybody.
In the UK most people
with HIV come from
two groups; gay men
and people of black
African origin. However,
there is still a high risk
among heterosexual
and non-African
populations. Infection
rates among
heterosexuals in the UK
rose from 740 in 2004
to 1,130 in 2008.
How common is HIV?
At the end of 2008, an
estimated 83,000
adults aged over 15
were living with HIV in
the UK. Of these, nearly
30% did not know they
were infected.
The World Health
Organization estimates
that more than 33
million people around
the world are living with
The virus is particularly
widespread in black
African countries, such
as South Africa,
Zimbabwe and